There are four main components to an ABS system:
The anti-lock braking system needs some way of knowing when a wheel is about to lock up. The speed sensors, which are located at each wheel, or in some cases in the differential, provide this information.
There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS.
Since the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes, there has to be some way to put that pressure back. That is what the pump does; when a valve reduces the pressure in a line, the pump is there to get the pressure back up.
The controller is a computer in the car. It watches the speed sensors and controls the valves.
Anti-lock braking systems use different schemes depending on the type of brakes in use.
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